Glaucoma is a group of chronic eye diseases, which are characterized by damage to the optic nerve.
Primary open-angle glaucoma as well as exfoliative glaucoma are the two most common types of glaucoma observed in Greece.
The common feature in most types of glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure, which is not related to blood pressure. However, it happens that people with normal intraocular pressure have lost their vision due to glaucoma.
In glaucoma the drainage of the aqueous humor, which is constantly produced to provide the necessary nutrients to the lens of the eye and cornea, is obstructed. This results in the aqueous humor accumulating and the intraocular pressure increasing. Intraocular pressure (normal value up to 21mmHg) presses on the optic nerve injuring its fibers. Initially, the nerve fibers located on the periphery are affected, so that peripheral vision is lost, and at a later stage the central fibers are affected, resulting in limited or even completely lost central vision.
The loss of both vision and visual field is irreversible.
Another cause of partial or total loss of vision is the blockage of small vessels that nourish the optic nerve and retina.
Glaucoma is treated with collyriums administered to reduce intraocular pressure. If the treatment with collyriums does not regulate the pressure, then laser trabeculoplasty and in some cases surgery is needed to open a side drainage of the aqueous humor. Along with medication, it is necessary to use specially made glasses for glaucoma. The daily training of glaucoma eyes with special glasses strengthens the optic nerve and inhibits the inertia of nerve cells.