The epiretinal membrane of the macula develops in the area of contact between vitreous and retina. It is formed by the growth of retinal cells that penetrate the surface of the retina median ruptures that are usually created when the posterior vitreous detaches from the retina. It may be idiopathic and more rarely due to some trauma.
When the membrane is thin, the symptoms are mild and vision is slightly reduced. When the membrane thickens, then the central vision blurs, visual acuity decreases and deformities are created, symptoms similar to those of macular degeneration.
In very rare cases, surgery is needed to remove the membrane and only in 50% of cases vision is restored.
The use of special glasses eliminates deformities painlessly and inverts vision.